GCSE Food Help – Materials and Components

This article refers to the science part of GCSE Food Technology, fundamentally the composition of food, the properties of food and the effect that processing has on food.
The Main Macro Nutrients are:
Protein – the GCSE Food technology course will focus on Milk, eggs, soya and cheese. You will need a basic understanding of the structure, As well as the nutritional properties. Then the effect of Mechanical action, Heat, Alkali’s and acids on the sensory, nutritional and physical properties i.e. denaturation and coagulation.
Lipids/Fats – Similar to proteins, the chemical composition, nutritional properties and there working characteristics. The working characteristics will cover aeration, emulsification, shortening, lubrication, plasticity and cooking medium.
Carbohydrate – Again Chemical structure, nutritional properties. The working characteristics Red And Green Biotechnology for sugar will focus on the effects of heat on starch, sugar and Non Soluble Protein (NSP)
The Micro Nutrients are:
Vitamins A, B, C, D and Minerals Calcium, Phosphorus and iron, For Micro nutrients you will learn their properties and sources, as well as the impact on processing. There are more micro nutrients but these are specifically in the GCSE Food technology course
PROTEIN
Protein is the first item in the materials and components section of GCSE food technology, Protein is the building block Wilmington University Web Design of all food materials, I would suggest a read of the wiki on Protein for an overall understanding of Protein.
Protein is predominantly found in animal based foods, such as meat, milk, eggs etc. but some can be found in vegetable products such as beans and nuts.
Protein when digested dissolves into smaller components called Amino Acids. It is these amino acids that the body needs to repair itself. Your body is constantly repairing itself, replacing old cells with new, a good example is hair and nails. Without protein the body cannot survive. It is recommended that a person consumes around 50g of protein a day.
Protein Food Groups Food Types can be split into 2 groups HBV – High Biological Value and LBV- Low Biological Value.
Foods in the HBV group tend to contain the Majority of the 10 amino acids the body needs. Typical foods in this group are Meat, Fish, Milk, Eggs and Soya Beans. These food items should play a man part in a diet.
Foods in the LBV group tend to contain only a few of the amino acids needed. The foods in this group are, typically Pulses (bean, lentils) and nuts. LBV group is important as certain diets can only consume these proteins i.e. Vegan.
Properties
Proteins have a unique property, upon heating they denature. This means the protein hardens, a prime example is egg white which has 10% protein. When cooked the clear runny egg white will change to a white firm rubbery consistency. This property is used heavily in the food industry to make products such as cakes, bread etc.
CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are the second major nutrient in the materials section of GCSE food technology. Carbohydrates fall into two categories Sugars and Starch.
SUGARS
The sugar we are all used to is called sucrose and is a white crystal material. it is the most preferred of the sugars because of its sweetness level. Typically the chemical name for sugar ends in -ose, there are many sugars other the sucrose, fructose found in fruit, lactose found in milk.
There are two key types of sugar Mono-saccharides and Di saccharides.
Mono Saccharides, are simple sugars, such as fruits and vegetables. Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide and is the key sugar in the blood chemistry.
Di saccharides, are more complex sugars and are more commonly found, examples are sucrose (common sugar), lactose from milk,.
Properties of sugar, are that they sweeten products, can cause caramelisation (browning), Sugar can also act as a preservative, often seen in jam making.
STARCH
Starches are longer chains of sugar molecules, monosaccharide = 1 molecule, disaccharide = 2 molecules. starches many molecules. Starch is commonly found in foods such as potatoes, pasta rice and flour.
The Properties of starch are one of the most important in Food Technology, without these properties most food couldn’t be made.
Starch has a property called GELATINISATION this means the starch absorbs water and swells forming a Gel. This is best seen with cornflour and water, mixed together cold it forms a suspensions in a liquid, heat it up and it forms a thick sauce. Add yellow food colouring and flavouring and you have custard.
This gelatinisation is also seen in bread making and lots of other sections. This will be very useful in the practical section of the GCSE Food Technology Course
LIPIDS
First off a quick way to remember that “Lipids” means Fat. LIPOSUCTION REMOVES FAT. Lipo, Lipid = Fat.
FAT is required by the body as a source of energy, it also required to insulate the body from the cold. Fat is also required to carry vitamins within the body. There are multiple forms of Fat the two main ones in GCSE Food Technology are Saturated Fats and Polyunsaturated Fats.
Saturated Fats
Saturated Fats typically come from animals, although can be found in some vegetables (coconut and palm oil). It tends to be hard when cold, so if it is very hard (unspreadable) when in the fridge it is typically saturated. Examples of saturated Fat products are, butter, lard. There is still an argument over the health benefits of saturated Fats, as earlier studies that suggested it leads to heart problems are now being challenged. Typically a Diet high in Saturated Fat is unhealthy leading to high levels of cholesterol.
Polyunsaturated Fat.
Poly unsaturated fat typically comes from vegetables and grains. It is easily recognisable as it is liquid at room temperature, i.e. vegetable oil, olive oil, sesame oil etc. In recent years Food technology has changed the properties of these oils to harden them at room temperature. This process is called Hydrogenation, the most common example of this is margarine. The main reason for doing this is the price of vegetable oil vs the price of butter. Hence the reason margarine was cheaper than butter.
Properties of Fat/Lipids
1. one of the biggest uses of Fat is for flavour, as it carry’s flavour molecules better than water
2. it allows air to be trapped into cells (the best example of this are mousse or ice cream)
3. Succulence or moistness to food products, without fat food tends to become dry. (compare low fat foods to normal)
These properties, should be remembered for the design phase of GCSE food technology.
MICRO NUTRIENTS
The Major nutrients are lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, Micro nutrients are the smaller components of food. Vitamins and minerals are the two key sections.
VITAMINS
the word vitamin originally comes from the two words Vital and Minerals. Vitamins are typically split into two categories, fat soluble (A,D,E and K) and water soluble (B and C). There are 13 vitamins in total.
I strongly suggest you learn the following section, as it will definitely be in the test for your GCSE Food technology course.
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A, is needed for good skin, health eye sight, and growth. It is often found in carotene. Which is why the say carrots are good for the eye sight.
Vitamin D, is critical for strong bones and healthy teeth, it supports the absorption of calcium into the body. It isn’t common in food and is mainly made by exposure to sunlight.
Vitamin E, is mainly for healthy skin but also acts as an antioxidant in the body. mainly found in eggs.
Vitamin K, Is involved in the clotting of blood, it is found in foods such as green vegetables and meats.
Water Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin B’s, there are 8 vitamin B’s in total. most of which you will see on the back of breakfast boxes as they are mainly found in cereals.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Helps the body convert carbohydrates and fat into energy; essential for normal growth and development; helps to maintain proper functioning of the heart and the nervous and digestive systems Green peas, spinach, liver, beef, pork, navy beans, pinto beans, soybeans, nuts, bananas, whole grain and enriched cereals, and breads 1.4 mg/day
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Required by the body for the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins; helps with cellular processes Asparagus, okra, chard, almonds, leafy greens, cottage cheese, milk, yogurt, meat, eggs, and fish 1.2 mg/day
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Necessary for energy metabolism in cells; DNA repair; produces several sex and stress-related hormones that are produced by the adrenal gland; helps remove toxins and chemicals from the body Chicken, beef, tuna, salmon, milk, eggs, broccoli, tomatoes, carrots, dates, sweet potatoes, asparagus, avocados, nuts, whole grains, beans, mushrooms, nutritional yeast 14 mg/day
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Necessary for the synthesis of red blood cells, the maintenance of the nervous system, and the growth and development of children Animal products such as meat, eggs, dairy products, nutritional yeast, and fortified cereals 6 mcg/day
Vitamin C, is often known for defending against colds and illness’s it also helps maintain good skin. Typically it is found in fruit and vegetables.
MINERALS
The two minerals in the GCSE Food Technology course are Calcium and Iron. Minerals are critical for the human body, but for them to be fully utilised they often require vitamins.
Calcium, is a key requirement for growth and for health bones and teeth. Calcium is found in Milk and cheese.
For the body to utilise Calcium, it requires vitamin D.
Iron, is the key nutrient required for red blood cells, the iron helps to bind oxygen. It is found in red meats and Green vegetables such as spinach. Too little Iron Causes blood diseases such as anemia.
Iron requires the vitamin C to be fully utilised.
I hope the information in the article are useful, for more information and answers to your GCSE Food Technology Questions, please visit. GCSE FOOD TECHNOLOGY

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